In ancient Mesopotamian cuisine, animal fats and butter were employed more often, whereas vegetable oils are missing there. Mesopotamians consumed fat regularly by eating fish and meat from sheep, but more importantly, pork from the pigs living around the houses.

Vegetable oils were generally not considered as a foodstuff or an ingredient of dishes in early Mesopotamia. Perhaps sesame oil – but not olive oil – was used for food preparation at the royal table in Mari (A.1.2.02).

Butter, on the other hand, was highly esteemed in Mesopotamian cuisine especially in the preparation of desserts together with dates and other fruit (XXX).  Lard was digested together with bread (XXX). Fish oil, on the other hand, was of technical usage, only.